United States Voidable Transaction Statutes
United_States State UnitedStatesClaimCodeVoidableTransactionsAndFraudulentTransfers
UNITED STATES CLAIMS FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
28 U.S.C. §§ 3301, et seq.
(where the United States is a creditor)
28 U.S.C. § 3301 — Definitions
As used in this subchapter:
(1) “Affiliate” means—
(A) a person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person who holds the securities—
(i) as a fiduciary or agent without sole discretionary power to vote the securities; or
(ii) solely to secure a debt, if the person has not exercised the power to vote;
(B) a corporation 20 percent or more of whose outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote, by the debtor or a person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than the person who holds securities—
(i) as a fiduciary or agent without sole power to vote the securities; or
(ii) solely to secure a debt, if the person has not in fact exercised the power to vote;
(C) a person whose business is operated by the debtor under a lease or other agreement, or a person substantially all of whose assets are controlled by the debtor; or
(D) a person who operates the debtor’s business under a lease or other agreement or controls substantially all of the debtor’s assets.
(2) “Asset” means property of a debtor, but does not include—
(A) property to the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien;
(B) property to the extent it is generally exempt under nonbankruptcy law; or
(C) an interest in real property held in tenancy by the entirety, or as part of a community estate, to extent such interest is not subject to process by the United States holding a claim against only one tenant or co-owner.
(3) “Claim” means a right to payment, whether or not the right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured.
(4) “Creditor” means a person who has a claim.
(5) “Insider” includes—
(A) if the debtor is an individual—
(i) a relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor;
(ii) a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;
(iii) a general partner in a partnership described in clause (ii); or
(iv) a corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control;
(B) if the debtor is a corporation—
(i) a director of the debtor;
(ii) an officer of the debtor;
(iii) a person in control of the debtor;
(iv) a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;
(v) a general partner in a partnership described in clause (iv); or
(vi) a relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor;
(C) if the debtor is a partnership—
(i) a general partner in the debtor;
(ii) a relative of a general partner in, a general partner of, or a person in control of the debtor;
(iii) another partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;
(iv) a general partner in a partnership described in clause (iii); or
(v) a person in control of the debtor.
(D) an affiliate, or an insider of an affiliate as if the affiliate were the debtor; and
(E) a managing agent of the debtor.
(4) “Lien” means a charge against or an interest in property to secure payment of a debt and includes a security interest created by agreement, a judicial lien obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings, a common law lien, or a statutory lien.
JayNote: This section is apparently misnumbered starting here.
(5) “Relative” means an individual related, by consanguinity or adoption, within the third degree as determined by the common law, a spouse, or an individual so related to a spouse within the third degree as so determined.
(6) “Transfer” means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an asset or an interest in an asset, and includes payment of money, release, lease, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance.
(7) “Valid lien” means a lien that is effective against the holder of a judicial lien subsequently obtained in legal or equitable proceeding.
28 U.S.C. § 3302 — Insolvency
(a) In General. Except as provided in subsection (c), a debtor is insolvent if the sum of the debtor’s debts is greater than all of the debtor’s assets at a fair valuation.
(b)Presumption. A debtor who is generally not paying debts as they become due is presumed to be insolvent.
(c) Calculation. A partnership is insolvent under subsection (a) if the sum of the partnership’s debts is greater than the aggregate, at a fair valuation, of—
(1) all of the partnership’s assets; and
(2) the sum of the excess of the value of each general partner’s non-partnership assets over the partner’s non-partnership debts.
(d) Assets. For purposes of this section, assets do not include property that is transferred, concealed, or removed with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud creditors or that has been transferred in a manner making the transfer voidable under this subchapter.
(e) Debts. For purposes of this section, debts do not include an obligation to the extent such obligation is secured by a valid lien on property of the debtor not included as an asset.
28 U.S.C. § 3303 — Value for transfer or obligation
(a) Transaction. Value is given for a transfer or an obligation if, in exchange for the transfer or obligation, property is transferred or an antecedent debt is secured or satisfied, but value does not include an unperformed promise made otherwise than in the ordinary course of the promisor’s business to furnish support to the debtor or another person.
(b) Reasonably Equivalent Value. For the purposes of sections 3304 and 3307, a person gives a reasonably equivalent value if the person acquires an interest of the debtor in an asset pursuant to a regularly conducted, noncollusive foreclosure sale or execution of a power of sale for the acquisition or disposition of such interest upon default under a mortgage, deed of trust, or security agreement.
(c) Present Value. A transfer is made for present value if the exchange between the debtor and the transferee is intended by them to be contemporaneous and is in fact substantially contemporaneous.
28 U.S.C. § 3304 — Transfer fraudulent as to a debt to the United States
(a) Debt Arising Before Transfer. Except as provided in section 3307, a transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a debt to the United States which arises before the transfer is made or the obligation is incurred if—
(A) the debtor makes the transfer or incurs the obligation without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation; and
(B) the debtor is insolvent at that time or the debtor becomes insolvent as a result of the transfer or obligation; or
(A) the transfer was made to an insider for an antecedent debt, the debtor was insolvent at the time; and
(B) the insider had reasonable cause to believe that the debtor was insolvent.
(b)Transfers Without Regard to Date of Judgment.
(1) Except as provided in section 3307, a transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a debt to the United States, whether such debt arises before or after the transfer is made or the obligation is incurred, if the debtor makes the transfer or incurs the obligation—
(A) with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud a creditor; or
(B) without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation if the debtor—
(i) was engaged or was about to engage in a business or a transaction for which the remaining assets of the debtor were unreasonably small in relation to the business or transaction; or
(ii) intended to incur, or believed or reasonably should have believed that he would incur, debts beyond his ability to pay as they became due.
(2) In determining actual intent under paragraph (1), consideration may be given, among other factors, to whether—
(A) the transfer or obligation was to an insider;
(B) the debtor retained possession or control of the property transferred after the transfer;
(C) the transfer or obligation was disclosed or concealed;
(D) before the transfer was made or obligation was incurred, the debtor had been sued or threatened with suit;
(E) the transfer was of substantially all the debtor’s assets;
(F) the debtor absconded;
(G) the debtor removed or concealed assets;
(H) the value of the consideration received by the debtor was reasonably equivalent to the value of the asset transferred or the amount of the obligation incurred;
(I) the debtor was insolvent or became insolvent shortly after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred;
(J) the transfer occurred shortly before or shortly after a substantial debt was incurred; and
(K) the debtor transferred the essential assets of the business to a lienor who transferred the assets to an insider of the debtor.
28 U.S.C. § 3305 — When transfer is made or obligation is incurred
For the purposes of this subchapter:
(1) A transfer is made—
(A) with respect to an asset that is real property (other than a fixture, but including the interest of a seller or purchaser under a contract for the sale of the asset), when the transfer is so far perfected that a good-faith purchaser of the asset from the debtor against whom applicable law permits the transfer to be perfected cannot acquire an interest in the asset that is superior to the interest of the transferee; and
(B) with respect to an asset that is not real property or that is a fixture, when the transfer is so far perfected that a creditor on a simple contract cannot acquire, otherwise than under this subchapter, a judicial lien that is superior to the interest of the transferee.
(2) If applicable law permits the transfer to be perfected as approved in paragraph (1) and the transfer is not so perfected before the commencement of an action or proceeding for relief under this subchapter, the transfer is deemed made immediately before the commencement of the action or proceeding.
(3) If applicable law does not permit the transfer to be perfected as provided in paragraph (1), the transfer is made when it becomes effective between the debtor and the transferee.
(4) A transfer is not made until the debtor has acquired rights in the asset transferred.
(5) An obligation is incurred—
(A) if oral, when it becomes effective between the parties; or
(B) if evidenced by a writing executed by the obligor, when such writing is delivered to or for the benefit of the obligee.
28 U.S.C. § 3306 — Remedies of the United States
(a) In General.—In an action or proceeding under this subchapter for relief against a transfer or obligation, the United States, subject to section 3307 and to applicable principles of equity and in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, may obtain—
(1) avoidance of the transfer or obligation to the extent necessary to satisfy the debt to the United States;
(2) a remedy under this chapter against the asset transferred or other property of the transferee; or
(3) any other relief the circumstances may require.
(b) Limitation.—A claim for relief with respect to a fraudulent transfer or obligation under this subchapter is extinguished unless action is brought—
(1) under section 3304(b)(1)(A) within 6 years after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred or, if later, within 2 years after the transfer or obligation was or could reasonably have been discovered by the claimant;
(2) under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(1)(B) of section 3304 within 6 years after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred; or
(3) under section 3304(a)(2) within 2 years after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred.
28 U.S.C. § 3307 — Defenses, liability, and protection of transferee
(a) Good Faith Transfer. A transfer or obligation is not voidable under section 3304(b) with respect to a person who took in good faith and for a reasonably equivalent value or against any transferee or obligee subsequent to such person.
(b) Limitation. Except as provided in subsection (d), to the extent a transfer is voidable in an action or proceeding by the United States under section 3306(a)(1), the United States may recover judgment for the value of the asset transferred, but not to exceed the judgment on a debt. The judgment may be entered against—
(1) the first transferee of the asset or the person for whose benefit the transfer was made; or
(2) any subsequent transferee, other than a good faith transferee who took for value or any subsequent transferee of such good-faith transferee.
(c) Value of Asset. For purposes of subsection (b), the value of the asset is the value of the asset at the time of the transfer, subject to adjustment as the equities may require.
(d) Rights of Good Faith Transferees and Obligees. Notwithstanding voidability of a transfer or an obligation under this subchapter, a good-faith transferee or obligee is entitled, to the extent of the value given the debtor for the transfer or obligation, to—
(1) a lien on or a right to retain any interest in the asset transferred;
(2) enforcement of any obligation incurred; or
(3) a reduction in the amount of the liability on the judgment.
(e) Exceptions.—A transfer is not voidable under section 3304(a) or section 3304(b)(2) if the transfer results from—
(1) termination of a lease upon default by the debtor when the termination is pursuant to the lease and applicable law; or
(2) enforcement of a security interest in compliance with article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code or its equivalent in effect in the State where the property is located.
(f) Limitation of Voidability. A transfer is not voidable under section 3304(a)(2)—
(1) to the extent the insider gives new value to or for the benefit of the debtor after the transfer is made unless the new value is secured by a valid lien;
(2) if made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the insider; or
(3) if made pursuant to a good-faith effort to rehabilitate the debtor and the transfer secured both present value given for that purpose and an antecedent debt of the debtor.
28 U.S.C. § 3308 — Supplementary provision
Except as provided in this subchapter, the principles of law and equity, including the law merchant and the law relating to principal and agent, estoppel, laches, fraud, misrepresentation, duress, coercion, mistake, insolvency, or other validating or invalidating cause shall apply to actions and proceedings under this subchapter.