Montana Voidable Transaction Statutes

Montana State MontanaVoidableTransactionUVTAFraudulentTransferUFTA



Montana Uniform Fraudulent Transfers Act

Montana UFTA a/k/a MTUFTA or MUFTA

MC 31-2-326, et seq.

{ Check Currency - Current Only As Of January 1, 2020 }

31-2-326. Short title

This part may be cited as the “Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act”.

31-2-327. Uniformity of application and construction

This part must be applied and construed to effectuate the general purpose of making uniform the law with respect to the subject of this part among states enacting it.

31-2-328. Definitions

As used in this part, the following definitions apply:
(1) “Affiliate” means:
(a) a person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote 20% or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person who holds the securities:
(i) as a fiduciary or agent without sole discretionary power to vote the securities; or
(ii) solely to secure a debt if the person has not exercised the power to vote;
(b) a corporation 20% or more of whose outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote by the debtor or a person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote 20% or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person who holds the securities:
(i) as a fiduciary or agent without sole power to vote the securities; or
(ii) solely to secure a debt if the person has not exercised the power to vote;
(c) a person whose business is operated by the debtor under a lease or other agreement or a person substantially all of whose assets are controlled by the debtor; or
(d) a person who operates the debtor’s business under a lease or other agreement or controls substantially all of the debtor’s assets.
(2) “Asset” means property of a debtor, but the term does not include:
(a) property to the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien;
(b) property to the extent it is generally exempt under nonbankruptcy law; or
(c) an interest in property held in tenancy by the entireties to the extent it is not subject to process by a creditor holding a claim against only one tenant.
(3) “Claim” means a right to payment, whether or not the right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured.
(4) “Creditor” means a person who has a claim.
(5) “Debt” means liability on a claim.
(6) “Debtor” means a person who is liable on a claim.
(7) “Insider” includes:
(a) if the debtor is an individual:
(i) a relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor;
(ii) a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;
(iii) a general partner in a partnership described in subsection (7)(a)(ii); or
(iv) a corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control;
(b) if the debtor is a corporation:
(i) a director of the debtor;
(ii) an officer of the debtor;
(iii) a person in control of the debtor;
(iv) a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;
(v) a general partner in a partnership described in subsection (7)(b)(iv); or
(vi) a relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor;
(c) if the debtor is a partnership:
(i) a general partner in the debtor;
(ii) a relative of a general partner in, a general partner of, or a person in control of the debtor;
(iii) another partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;
(iv) a general partner in a partnership described in subsection (7)(c)(iii); or
(v) a person in control of the debtor;
(d) an affiliate or an insider of an affiliate as if the affiliate were the debtor; and
(e) a managing agent of the debtor.
(8) “Lien” means a charge against or an interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation and includes a security interest created by agreement, a judicial lien obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings, a common-law lien, or a statutory lien.
(9) “Person” means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, or any other legal or commercial entity.
(10) “Property” means anything that may be the subject of ownership.
(11) “Relative” means:
(a) an individual related by consanguinity within the third degree as determined by the common law;
(b) a spouse or an individual related to a spouse within the third degree as so determined; or
(c) an individual in an adoptive relationship within the third degree.
(12) “Transfer” means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an asset or an interest in an asset and includes payment of money, release, lease, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance.
(13) “Valid lien” means a lien that is effective against the holder of a judicial lien subsequently obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings.

31-2-329. Insolvency

(1) A debtor is insolvent if the sum of the debtor’s debts is greater than all of the debtor’s property at a fair valuation and the debtor is generally not paying the debtor’s debts as they become due.
(2) Property under this section does not include property that has been transferred, concealed, or removed with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud creditors or that has been transferred in a manner making the transfer voidable under this part.

31-2-330. Value

(1) Value is given for a transfer or an obligation if, in exchange for the transfer or obligation, property is transferred or an antecedent debt is secured or satisfied, but value does not include an unperformed promise made other than in the ordinary course of the promisor’s business to furnish support to the debtor or another person.
(2) A transfer is made for present value if the exchange between the debtor and the transferee is intended by them to be contemporaneous and is in fact substantially contemporaneous.

31-2-333. Transfers fraudulent as to present and future creditors

(1) A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor, whether the creditor’s claim arose before or after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred, if the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation:
(a) with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud any creditor of the debtor; or
(b) without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation and the debtor:
(i) was engaged or was about to engage in a business or a transaction for which the remaining assets of the debtor were unreasonably small in relation to the business or transaction; or
(ii) intended to incur, or believed or reasonably should have believed that the debtor would incur, debts beyond the debtor’s ability to pay as they became due.
(2) In determining actual intent under subsection (1)(a), consideration may be given, among other factors, to whether:
(a) the transfer or obligation was to an insider;
(b) the debtor retained possession or control of the property transferred after the transfer;
(c) the transfer or obligation was disclosed or concealed;
(d) before the transfer was made or obligation was incurred, the debtor had been sued or threatened with suit;
(e) the transfer was of substantially all the debtor’s assets;
(f) the debtor absconded;
(g) the debtor removed or concealed assets;
(h) the value of the consideration received by the debtor was reasonably equivalent to the value of the asset transferred or the amount of the obligation incurred;
(i) the debtor was insolvent or became insolvent shortly after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred;
(j) the transfer occurred shortly before or shortly after a substantial debt was incurred; or
(k) the debtor transferred the essential assets of the business to a lienor who transferred the assets to an insider of the debtor.

31-2-334. Transfers fraudulent as to present creditors

(1) A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred if the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation and the debtor was insolvent at that time or the debtor became insolvent as a result of the transfer or obligation.
(2) A transfer made by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made if the transfer was made to an insider for an antecedent debt, the debtor was insolvent at that time, and the insider had reasonable cause to believe that the debtor was insolvent.

31-2-335. When transfer made or obligation incurred

For the purposes of this part:
(1) a transfer is made:
(a) with respect to an asset that is real property other than a fixture, but including the interest of a seller or purchaser under a contract for the sale of the asset, when the transfer is so far perfected that a good faith purchaser of the asset from the debtor against whom applicable law permits the transfer to be perfected cannot acquire an interest in the asset that is superior to the interest of the transferee; and
(b) with respect to an asset that is not real property or that is a fixture, when the transfer is so far perfected that a creditor on a simple contract cannot acquire a judicial lien otherwise than under this part that is superior to the interest of the transferee;
(2) if applicable law permits the transfer to be perfected as provided in subsection (1) and the transfer is not perfected before the commencement of an action for relief under this part, the transfer is considered made immediately before the commencement of the action;
(3) if applicable law does not permit the transfer to be perfected as provided in subsection (1), the transfer is considered made when it becomes effective between the debtor and the transferee;
(4) a transfer is not made until the debtor has acquired rights in the asset transferred;
(5) an obligation is incurred:
(a) if oral, when it becomes effective between the parties; or
(b) if evidenced in writing, when the writing executed by the obligor is delivered to or for the benefit of the obligee.

31-2-339. Remedies of creditors

(1) In an action for relief against a transfer or obligation under this part, a creditor, subject to the limitations in 31-2-340, may obtain:
(a) avoidance of the transfer or obligation to the extent necessary to satisfy the creditor’s claim;
(b) an attachment or other provisional remedy against the asset transferred or other property of the transferee in accordance with the procedure prescribed by Title 27, chapter 18; or
(c) subject to applicable principles of equity and in accordance with applicable rules of civil procedure:
(i) an injunction against further disposition by the debtor or a transferee, or both, of the asset transferred or of other property;
(ii) appointment of a receiver to take charge of the asset transferred or of other property of the transferee; or
(iii) any other relief the circumstances may require.
(2) If a creditor has obtained a judgment on a claim against the debtor, the creditor, if the court so orders, may levy execution on the asset transferred or its proceeds.

31-2-340. Defenses, liability, and protection of transferee

(1) A transfer or obligation is not voidable under 31-2-333(1)(a) against a person who took in good faith and for a reasonably equivalent value or against any subsequent transferee or obligee.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, to the extent a transfer is voidable in an action by a creditor under 31-2-339(1)(a), the creditor may recover judgment for the value of the asset transferred, as adjusted under subsection (3), or the amount necessary to satisfy the creditor’s claim, whichever is less. The judgment may be entered against:
(a) the first transferee of the asset or the person for whose benefit the transfer was made; or
(b) any subsequent transferee other than a good faith transferee who took for value or from any subsequent transferee.
(3) If the judgment under subsection (2) is based upon the value of the asset transferred, the judgment must be for an amount equal to the value of the asset at the time of the transfer, subject to adjustment as the equities may require.
(4) Notwithstanding voidability of a transfer or an obligation under this part, a good faith transferee or obligee is entitled, to the extent of the value given the debtor for the transfer or obligation, to:
(a) a lien on or a right to retain any interest in the asset transferred;
(b) enforcement of any obligation incurred; or
(c) a reduction in the amount of the liability on the judgment.
(5) A transfer is not voidable under 31-2-333(1)(b) or 31-2-334 if the transfer results from:
(a) termination of a lease upon default by the debtor when the termination is pursuant to the lease and applicable law; or
(b) enforcement of a security interest in compliance with Title 30, chapter 9A.
(6) A transfer is not voidable under 31-2-334(2):
(a) to the extent the insider gave new value to or for the benefit of the debtor after the transfer was made, unless the new value was secured by a valid lien;
(b) if made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the insider; or
(c) if made pursuant to a good faith effort to rehabilitate the debtor and the transfer secured present value given for that purpose as well as an antecedent debt of the debtor.

31-2-341. Termination of cause of action

A cause of action with respect to a fraudulent transfer or obligation under this part is terminated unless an action is brought under:
(1) 31-2-333(1)(a) within 4 years after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred or, if later, within 2 years after the transfer or obligation was or could reasonably have been discovered by the claimant;
(2) 31-2-333(1)(b) or 31-2-334(1) within 4 years after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred; or
(3) 31-2-334(2) within 2 years after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred.

31-2-342. Supplementary provisions

Unless displaced by the provisions of this part, the principles of law and equity, including the law merchant and the law relating to principal and agent, estoppel, laches, fraud, misrepresentation, duress, coercion, mistake, insolvency, or other validating or invalidating cause, supplement its provisions.





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