Voidable Transactions

 - previously known as -

Fraudulent Transfers


Caution state law variances!

Title of Act


This [Act], which was formerly cited as the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act, may be cited as the Uniform Voidable Transactions Act.

Reporter's Comment: 1. The 2014 amendments change the short title of the Act from “Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act” to “Uniform Voidable Transactions Act.” The change of title is not intended to effect any change in the meaning of the Act. The retitling is not motivated by the substantive revisions made by the 2014 amendments, which are relatively minor. Rather, the word “Fraudulent” in the original title, though sanctioned by historical usage, was a misleading description of the Act as it was originally written. Fraud is not, and never has been, a necessary element of a claim for relief under the Act. The misleading intimation to the contrary in the original title of the Act led to confusion in the courts. See, e.g., § 4, Comment 10. The misleading insistence on “fraud” in the original title also contributed to the evolution of widely-used shorthand terminology that further tends to distort understanding of the provisions of the Act. Thus, several theories of recovery under the Act that have nothing whatever to do with fraud (or with intent of any sort) came to be widely known by the oxymoronic and confusing shorthand tag “constructive fraud.” See §§ 4(a)(2), 5(a). Likewise, the primordial theory of recovery under the Act, set forth in § 4(a)(1), came to be widely known by the shorthand tag “actual fraud.” That shorthand is misleading, because that provision does not in fact require proof of fraudulent intent. See § 4, Comment 8.


In addition, the word “Transfer” in the original title of the Act was underinclusive, because the Act applies to incurrence of obligations as well as to transfers of property.


{Note has been relocated to Section 12}


3. The retitling of the Act should not be construed to affect references to the Act in other statutes or international instruments that use the former terminology. See, e.g., Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment, art. 30(a)(3), opened for signature Nov. 16, 2001, S. Treaty Doc. No. 108-10 (referring to “any rules of law applicable in insolvency proceedings relating to the avoidance of a transaction as a … transfer in fraud of creditors”).


4. The 2014 amendments also make a correction to the text of the Act that is consonant with the change of the Act’s title. As originally written, the Act inconsistently used different words to denote a transfer or obligation for which the Act provides a remedy: sometimes “voidable” (see original § 2(d), §§ 8(a), (d), (e), (f)), and sometimes “fraudulent” (see original § 4(a), §§ 5(a), (b), § 9). The amendments resolve that inconsistency by using “voidable” consistently or deleting the word as unnecessary. No change in meaning is intended.


{Note 5 has been relocated to Section 12}


Prefatory Note (UFTA 1984): The Committee determined to name the new Act the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act in recognition of its applicability to transfers of personal property as well as real property, “conveyance” having a connotation restricting it to a transfer of real property. As noted in Comment 2 accompanying § 1 and Comment 9 accompanying § 4, however, the new Act, like the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act, does not purport to cover the whole law of voidable transfers and obligations. The limited scope of the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act did not impair its effectiveness in achieving uniformity in the areas covered. See McLaughlin, Application of the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act, 46 Harv.L.Rev. 404, 405 (1933).


Prefatory Note (UVTA 2014): Likewise, the retitling of the Act is not intended to change its meaning. See § 15, Comment 1.


Prefatory Note (UVTA 2014): Style. The amendments make a number of stylistic changes that are not intended to change the meaning of the Act. For example, the amended Act consistently uses the word “voidable” to denote a transfer or obligation for which the Act provides a remedy. As originally written the Act sometimes inconsistently used the word “fraudulent.” No change in meaning is intended. See § 15, Comment 4.


JayNote: The name of the UFTA was changed because the term "fraudulent" attracted the baggage of misrepresentational "fraud" actions that have utterly nothing to do with fraudulent transfers. Essentially, this change corrects an error in the naming of such actions that relates at least as far back as the Fraudulent Conveyances Act 1571 (13 Eliz 1, c 5), also known as the Statute of 13 Elizabeth.




C O M M O N      P A G E      F O O T E R



Need to become fluent in the UVTA quickly? This four-hour audio program by Jay Adkisson and Dave Slenn, ABA Advisors to the UVTA Drafting Committee, explains key features of the UVTA, how they operate, and why. Hosted by Leimberg Information Services. Click here for more



2019.05.30 ... Understanding The Elements Of The UVTA Tests For A Voidable Transaction

2019.05.20 ... Good Faith Not Enough For Transferee To Establish Fraudulent Transfer Defense In Hawk

2019.03.31 ... Voidability Of Sham Lawsuit And Judgment At Issue In Chen

2019.02.22 ... California Court Of Appeals Swings And Misses On Pre-Marital Fraudulent Transfer Agreement In Sturm

2019.02.12 ... Why The Mere Incorporation Or Formation Process For A New Entity Is Not A Fraudulent Transfer

2019.01.30 ... Resignation Of Corporate Officer Not A Fraudulent Transfer In Texas Opinion


Many more articles on voidable transactions law found here


UVTA - LOGICAL ORGANIZATION (Designed For Litigators)

UVTA - NUMERICAL ORGANIZATION (Confusing & Difficult To Use)


The Uniform Law Commission's complete copy of the UVTA with comments in PDF format is available here. The webpage for the UVTA, showing states that have enacted and much other information regarding the Act is found here.


1 - Definitions

(1) Affiliate -- (2) Asset -- (3) Claim -- (4) Creditor -- (5) Debt -- (6) Debtor -- (7) Electronic -- (8) Insider -- (9) Lien -- (10) Organization -- (11) Person -- (12) Property -- (13) Record -- (14) Relative -- (15) Sign -- (16) Transfer -- (17) Valid Lien

2 - Insolvency

3 - Value

4 - Transfer Or Obligation Voidable As To Present Or Future Creditor

(a)(1) {Intent Test} -- (a)(2)(i) {Capitalization Test} -- (a)(2)(ii) {Equity-Sense Insolvency Test}

(b) {Badges of Fraud}

5 - Transfer or Obligation Voidable As To Present Creditor

(a) {Insolvency Test} -- (b) {Insider Preference Test}

6 - When Transfer Is Made Or Obligation Is Incurred

7 - Remedies Of Creditor

8 - Defenses, Liability, And Protection Of Transferee Or Obligee

{Main Provisions} -- (b) and (c) {Money Judgment}

9 - Extinguishment Of Claim For Relief

10 - Governing Law

11 - Application To Series Organization

12 - Supplementary Provisions

13 - Uniformity Of Application And Construction

14 - Relation To Electronic Signatures In Global And National Commerce

15 - Short Title

16 - Repeals; Conforming Amendment




Fraudulent Transfers In Bankruptcy - Main Page


28 U.S.C. § 3301, et seq. - Where United States is the creditor


Common Law Fraudulent Transfer - Still exists in most states


Fraudulent Conveyances Act of 1571 a/k/a Statute of 13 Elizabeth - The medieval statute to which the modern American UVTA traces some of its roots.






  • About Jay Adkisson - More about Jay D. Adkisson, background, books, articles, speaking appearances -


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  • Protected Series LLCs - An examination of the single most complex statutory legal structure yet created, with particular reference to the Uniform Protected Series Act of 2017 -


  • California Enforcement of Judgments Law - Considers the topic of judgment enforcement in California, including the California Enforcement of Judgments Law and other laws related to California creditor-debtor issues -


  • Anti-SLAPP Laws - A collection of and commentary about Anti-SLAPP laws and significant court decisions on the subject within the United States -


Available in 2019


Voidable Transactions: Fraudulent Transfers In Modern American Law, by Jay D. Adkisson


Click here for purchase information

© 2018 Jay D. Adkisson. All rights reserved. No claim to government works or the works of the Uniform Law Commission. The information contained in this website is for general educational purposes only, does not constitute any legal advice or opinion, and should not be relied upon in relation to particular cases. Use this information at your own peril; it is no substitute for the legal advice or opinion of an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction.  This site Contact: jay [at] or by phone to 702-953-9617 or by fax to 877-698-0678.