Voidable Transactions

 - previously known as -

Fraudulent Transfers

Caution state law variances!

Title of Act


This [Act], which was formerly cited as the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act, may be cited as the Uniform Voidable Transactions Act.

Reporter's Comment: 1. The 2014 amendments change the short title of the Act from “Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act” to “Uniform Voidable Transactions Act.” The change of title is not intended to effect any change in the meaning of the Act. The retitling is not motivated by the substantive revisions made by the 2014 amendments, which are relatively minor. Rather, the word “Fraudulent” in the original title, though sanctioned by historical usage, was a misleading description of the Act as it was originally written. Fraud is not, and never has been, a necessary element of a claim for relief under the Act. The misleading intimation to the contrary in the original title of the Act led to confusion in the courts. See, e.g., § 4, Comment 10. The misleading insistence on “fraud” in the original title also contributed to the evolution of widely-used shorthand terminology that further tends to distort understanding of the provisions of the Act. Thus, several theories of recovery under the Act that have nothing whatever to do with fraud (or with intent of any sort) came to be widely known by the oxymoronic and confusing shorthand tag “constructive fraud.” See §§ 4(a)(2), 5(a). Likewise, the primordial theory of recovery under the Act, set forth in § 4(a)(1), came to be widely known by the shorthand tag “actual fraud.” That shorthand is misleading, because that provision does not in fact require proof of fraudulent intent. See § 4, Comment 8.


In addition, the word “Transfer” in the original title of the Act was underinclusive, because the Act applies to incurrence of obligations as well as to transfers of property.


{Note has been relocated to Section 12}


3. The retitling of the Act should not be construed to affect references to the Act in other statutes or international instruments that use the former terminology. See, e.g., Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment, art. 30(a)(3), opened for signature Nov. 16, 2001, S. Treaty Doc. No. 108-10 (referring to “any rules of law applicable in insolvency proceedings relating to the avoidance of a transaction as a … transfer in fraud of creditors”).


4. The 2014 amendments also make a correction to the text of the Act that is consonant with the change of the Act’s title. As originally written, the Act inconsistently used different words to denote a transfer or obligation for which the Act provides a remedy: sometimes “voidable” (see original § 2(d), §§ 8(a), (d), (e), (f)), and sometimes “fraudulent” (see original § 4(a), §§ 5(a), (b), § 9). The amendments resolve that inconsistency by using “voidable” consistently or deleting the word as unnecessary. No change in meaning is intended.


{Note 5 has been relocated to Section 12}


Prefatory Note (UFTA 1984): The Committee determined to name the new Act the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act in recognition of its applicability to transfers of personal property as well as real property, “conveyance” having a connotation restricting it to a transfer of real property. As noted in Comment 2 accompanying § 1 and Comment 9 accompanying § 4, however, the new Act, like the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act, does not purport to cover the whole law of voidable transfers and obligations. The limited scope of the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act did not impair its effectiveness in achieving uniformity in the areas covered. See McLaughlin, Application of the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act, 46 Harv.L.Rev. 404, 405 (1933).


Prefatory Note (UVTA 2014): Likewise, the retitling of the Act is not intended to change its meaning. See § 15, Comment 1.


Prefatory Note (UVTA 2014): Style. The amendments make a number of stylistic changes that are not intended to change the meaning of the Act. For example, the amended Act consistently uses the word “voidable” to denote a transfer or obligation for which the Act provides a remedy. As originally written the Act sometimes inconsistently used the word “fraudulent.” No change in meaning is intended. See § 15, Comment 4.


JayNote: The name of the UFTA was changed because the term "fraudulent" attracted the baggage of misrepresentational "fraud" actions that have utterly nothing to do with fraudulent transfers. Essentially, this change corrects an error in the naming of such actions that relates at least as far back as the Fraudulent Conveyances Act 1571 (13 Eliz 1, c 5), also known as the Statute of 13 Elizabeth.




C O M M O N      P A G E      F O O T E R



2018.04.22 ... State And Federal Fraudulent Transfer Law Diverge Over Exempt Property In Vorhes

2017.12.18 ... Revocation Of A Company's S-Election By Shareholders Not Deemed A Voidable Transaction In Arrowsmith

2017.12.07 ... 'I Only Gave It To My Spouse In Case I Got Sued' Defense Flops Once Again In Soley Case

2017.08.20 ... One Year Discovery Rule For Fraudulent Transfers Tested In PNC Bank Case

2017.05.30 ... The Good Faith Transferee Defined In Nautilus

Many more articles by Jay Adkisson found here


UVTA - LOGICAL ORGANIZATION (Designed For Litigators)

Click here to go to the Voidable Transactions Decision Chart

Overview of UVTA -- The process and result

UVTA - NUMERICAL ORGANIZATION (Confusing & Difficult To Use)


The Uniform Law Commission's complete copy of the UVTA with comments in PDF format is available here. The webpage for the UVTA, showing states that have enacted and much other information regarding the Act is found here.


1 - Definitions

(1) Affiliate -- (2) Asset -- (3) Claim -- (4) Creditor -- (5) Debt -- (6) Debtor -- (7) Electronic -- (8) Insider -- (9) Lien -- (10) Organization -- (11) Person -- (12) Property -- (13) Record -- (14) Relative -- (15) Sign -- (16) Transfer -- (17) Valid Lien

2 - Insolvency

3 - Value

4 - Transfer Or Obligation Voidable As To Present Or Future Creditor

(a)(1) {Intent Test} -- (a)(2)(i) {Capitalization Test} -- (a)(2)(ii) {Equity-Sense Insolvency Test}

(b) {Badges of Fraud}

5 - Transfer or Obligation Voidable As To Present Creditor

(a) {Insolvency Test} -- (b) {Insider Preference Test}

6 - When Transfer Is Made Or Obligation Is Incurred

7 - Remedies Of Creditor

8 - Defenses, Liability, And Protection Of Transferee Or Obligee

{Main Provisions} -- (b) and (c) {Money Judgment}

9 - Extinguishment Of Claim For Relief

10 - Governing Law

11 - Application To Series Organization

12 - Supplementary Provisions

13 - Uniformity Of Application And Construction

14 - Relation To Electronic Signatures In Global And National Commerce

15 - Short Title

16 - Repeals; Conforming Amendment








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