Voidable Transactions

 - previously known as -

Fraudulent Transfers


Caution state law variances!

Protected Series Organizations (a/k/a Series LLCs)

UVTA § 11

Reporter's Comment: This section, added in 2014, accommodates developments in business organization statutes exemplified by the Uniform Statutory Trust Entity Act §§ 401-404 (2009) and Del. Code Ann. tit. 6, § 18-215 (2012) (pertaining to Delaware limited liability companies). The definition of “series organization” in subsection (a)(2) is adapted from §§ 401-402 of the Uniform Statutory Trust Entity Act. If the statute under which an organization is organized permits it to divide its assets and debts among “protected series” (however denominated), such that assets and debts of, or associated with, each “protected series” are separated in accordance with subsections (a)(2)(ii) and (iii), and if the organization does so, then the provisions of this Act apply to each “protected series” as if it were a legal entity, regardless of whether it is considered to be a legal entity for other purposes. The conditions referred to in subsections (a)(2)(ii) and (iii) are satisfied if the law under which the organization is organized so provides. It does not matter whether the separation of assets and debts described in subsections (a)(2)(ii) and (iii) would be respected by another jurisdiction in which the organization does business, or would be given effect by the Bankruptcy Code in the bankruptcy of the organization. An organization may be a “series organization” having “protected series,” as those terms are used in this section, even though the statute under which the organization is organized uses different terminology. This section uses the term “protected series,” which is not used in either the Uniform Statutory Trust Entity Act or the Delaware provisions cited above, to emphasize that the application of this section does not depend upon the terminology used by the applicable statute.


The addition of this section to the Act does not imply any judgment about the desirability of legislation enabling the creation of protected series.


Prefatory Note (UVTA 2014): Series Organizations. A new § 11 provides that each “protected series” of a “series organization” is to be treated as a person for purposes of the Act, even if it is not treated as a person for other purposes. This change responds to the emergence of the “series organization” as a significant form of business organization.

(a) In this section:

(1) “Protected series” means an arrangement, however denominated, created by a series organization that, pursuant to the law under which the series organization is organized, has the characteristics set forth in paragraph (2).

(2) “Series organization” means an organization that, pursuant to the law under which it is organized, has the following characteristics:

(i) The organic record of the organization provides for creation by the organization of one or more protected series, however denominated, with respect to specified property of the organization, and for records to be maintained for each protected series that identify the property of or associated with the protected series.

(ii) Debt incurred or existing with respect to the activities of, or property of or associated with, a particular protected series is enforceable against the property of or associated with the protected series only, and not against the property of or associated with the organization or other protected series of the organization.

(iii) Debt incurred or existing with respect to the activities or property of the organization is enforceable against the property of the organization only, and not against the property of or associated with a protected series of the organization.

JayNote: This section applies the UVTA to Series LLCs and similar forms of entities, and treats each individual protected cell as a separate person, i.e., Series A could be found to have made an avoidable transfer to Series B.

(b) A series organization and each protected series of the organization is a separate person for purposes of this [Act], even if for other purposes a protected series is not a person separate from the organization or other protected series of the organization.


Legislative Note: This section should be enacted even if the enacting jurisdiction does not itself have legislation enabling the creation of protected series. For example, in such an enacting jurisdiction this section will apply if a protected series of a series organization organized under the law of a different jurisdiction makes a transfer to another protected series of that organization and, under applicable choice of law rules, the voidability of the transfer is governed by the law of the enacting jurisdiction.



C O M M O N      P A G E      F O O T E R



Need to become fluent in the UVTA quickly? This four-hour audio program by Jay Adkisson and Dave Slenn, ABA Advisors to the UVTA Drafting Committee, explains key features of the UVTA, how they operate, and why. Hosted by Leimberg Information Services. Click here for more



2019.05.30 ... Understanding The Elements Of The UVTA Tests For A Voidable Transaction

2019.05.20 ... Good Faith Not Enough For Transferee To Establish Fraudulent Transfer Defense In Hawk

2019.03.31 ... Voidability Of Sham Lawsuit And Judgment At Issue In Chen

2019.02.22 ... California Court Of Appeals Swings And Misses On Pre-Marital Fraudulent Transfer Agreement In Sturm

2019.02.12 ... Why The Mere Incorporation Or Formation Process For A New Entity Is Not A Fraudulent Transfer

2019.01.30 ... Resignation Of Corporate Officer Not A Fraudulent Transfer In Texas Opinion


Many more articles on voidable transactions law found here


UVTA - LOGICAL ORGANIZATION (Designed For Litigators)

UVTA - NUMERICAL ORGANIZATION (Confusing & Difficult To Use)


The Uniform Law Commission's complete copy of the UVTA with comments in PDF format is available here. The webpage for the UVTA, showing states that have enacted and much other information regarding the Act is found here.


1 - Definitions

(1) Affiliate -- (2) Asset -- (3) Claim -- (4) Creditor -- (5) Debt -- (6) Debtor -- (7) Electronic -- (8) Insider -- (9) Lien -- (10) Organization -- (11) Person -- (12) Property -- (13) Record -- (14) Relative -- (15) Sign -- (16) Transfer -- (17) Valid Lien

2 - Insolvency

3 - Value

4 - Transfer Or Obligation Voidable As To Present Or Future Creditor

(a)(1) {Intent Test} -- (a)(2)(i) {Capitalization Test} -- (a)(2)(ii) {Equity-Sense Insolvency Test}

(b) {Badges of Fraud}

5 - Transfer or Obligation Voidable As To Present Creditor

(a) {Insolvency Test} -- (b) {Insider Preference Test}

6 - When Transfer Is Made Or Obligation Is Incurred

7 - Remedies Of Creditor

8 - Defenses, Liability, And Protection Of Transferee Or Obligee

{Main Provisions} -- (b) and (c) {Money Judgment}

9 - Extinguishment Of Claim For Relief

10 - Governing Law

11 - Application To Series Organization

12 - Supplementary Provisions

13 - Uniformity Of Application And Construction

14 - Relation To Electronic Signatures In Global And National Commerce

15 - Short Title

16 - Repeals; Conforming Amendment




Fraudulent Transfers In Bankruptcy - Main Page


28 U.S.C. § 3301, et seq. - Where United States is the creditor


Common Law Fraudulent Transfer - Still exists in most states


Fraudulent Conveyances Act of 1571 a/k/a Statute of 13 Elizabeth - The medieval statute to which the modern American UVTA traces some of its roots.






  • About Jay Adkisson - More about Jay D. Adkisson, background, books, articles, speaking appearances -


  • Captive Insurance Companies - Licensed insurance companies formed by the parent organization to handle the insurance and risk management needs of the business, by the author of the best-selling book on the topic: Adkisson's Captive Insurance Companies -



  • Collecting On A Judgment - An explanation of common creditor remedies, strategies and tactics to enforce a judgment, including a discussion of common debtor asset protection strategies -


  • Private Retirement Plans - An exploration of a unique creditor exemption allowed under California law which can be very beneficial but is often misused -


  • Charging Orders - The confusing remedy against a debtor's interest in an LLC or partnership is explained in reference to the Uniform Partnership Act, the Uniform Limited Partnership Act, and the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act -


  • Protected Series LLCs - An examination of the single most complex statutory legal structure yet created, with particular reference to the Uniform Protected Series Act of 2017 -


  • California Enforcement of Judgments Law - Considers the topic of judgment enforcement in California, including the California Enforcement of Judgments Law and other laws related to California creditor-debtor issues -


  • Anti-SLAPP Laws - A collection of and commentary about Anti-SLAPP laws and significant court decisions on the subject within the United States -


Available in 2019


Voidable Transactions: Fraudulent Transfers In Modern American Law, by Jay D. Adkisson


Click here for purchase information

© 2018 Jay D. Adkisson. All rights reserved. No claim to government works or the works of the Uniform Law Commission. The information contained in this website is for general educational purposes only, does not constitute any legal advice or opinion, and should not be relied upon in relation to particular cases. Use this information at your own peril; it is no substitute for the legal advice or opinion of an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction.  This site Contact: jay [at] or by phone to 702-953-9617 or by fax to 877-698-0678.