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Voidable Transactions

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Fraudulent Transfers

Caution state law variances!

"Insider" and "Affiliate" Defined

"Insider" Defined

§1(8) “Insider” includes:

JayNote: The use of the term "includes" means that the following list is non-exhaustive, and a person may be deemed to be an "insider" if they have a sufficiently close relationship with the debtor that they might be in collusion to assist the debtor in defeating the rights of creditors, even if they are not listed below, i.e., somebody under the debtor's control (CPA, financial adviser, or attorney, etc.) or somebody personally close to the debtor such as a boyfriend or girlfriend even if not legally entangled, or even a long-time neighbor. Stated differently, an "insider" is to be distinguished from a true outsider who has either no other relationship with the debtor whatsoever, or at most only a passing acquaintance with the debtor.

(i) if the debtor is an individual:

(A) a relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor;

(B) a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;

(C) a general partner in a partnership described in clause (B); or

(D) a corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control;

(ii) if the debtor is a corporation:

(A) a director of the debtor;

(B) an officer of the debtor;

(C) a person in control of the debtor;

(D) a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;

(E) a general partner in a partnership described in clause (D); or

(F) a relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor;

(iii) if the debtor is a partnership:

(A) a general partner in the debtor;

(B) a relative of a general partner in, a general partner of, or a person in control of the debtor;

(C) another partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;

(D) a general partner in a partnership described in clause (C); or

(E) a person in control of the debtor;

(iv) an affiliate, or an insider of an affiliate as if the affiliate were the debtor; and

JayNote: The definition of "insider" includes an "affiliate" under Section 1(1), and thus is dramatically expanded by that definition as well.

(v) a managing agent of the debtor.

Reporter's Comment: 8. The definition of “insider” is derived from Bankruptcy Code § 101(28) (1984). In this Act, as in the Bankruptcy Code, the definition states that the term “includes” certain listed persons; it does not state that the term “means” the listed persons. Hence the definition is not exclusive, and the statutory list is merely exemplary. See also Bankruptcy Code § 102(3) (1984). Accordingly, a person may be an “insider” of a debtor that is an individual, corporation or partnership even though the person is not designated as such by the statutory list. For example, a trust may be found to be an “insider” of a beneficiary. Similarly, a court may find a person living with an individual debtor for an extended time in the same household or as a permanent companion to have the kind of close relationship intended to be covered by the term “insider.” See also, e.g., Browning Interests v. Allison (In re Holloway), 955 F.2d 1008 (5th Cir.1992) (former spouse of debtor was an “insider” because of their close and continued personal relationship, even though they had long ago divorced and remarried others). Likewise, a person may be an “insider” of a debtor that is not an individual, corporation or partnership. See, e.g., In re Longview Aluminum, L.L.C., 657 F.3d 507 (7th Cir. 2011) (holding, under the Bankruptcy Code definition, that an individual serving on the Board of Managers of, and having a 12% membership interest in, a limited liability company was an “insider” of the company; the company’s organic documents vested management authority “in the Board of Managers and the Members”).

 

The differences between the definition in this Act and that in the Bankruptcy Code are slight. In this Act, the definition has been restricted in clauses (i)(C), (ii)(E), and (iii)(D) to make clear that a partner is not an insider of an individual, corporation, or partnership if any of these latter three persons is only a limited partner. The definition of “insider” in the Bankruptcy Code does not purport to make a limited partner an insider of the partners or of the partnership with which the limited partner is associated, but it is susceptible of a contrary interpretation and one which would extend unduly the scope of the defined relationship when the limited partner is not a person in control of the partnership. The definition of “insider” in this Act also omits the reference in Bankruptcy Code § 101(28)(D) (1984) to an elected official or relative of such an official as an insider of a municipality.

 

JayNote: Essentially, an "insider" includes a "relative" of the debtor as defined in Section 1(14), business entities that are closely associated with the debtor, and the debtor's nominees and agents under the definition of "affiliate".

"Affiliate" Defined

§1(1) “Affiliate” means:

(i) a person that directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person that holds the securities:

(A) as a fiduciary or agent without sole discretionary power to vote the securities; or

(B) solely to secure a debt, if the person has not in fact exercised the power to vote;

(ii) a corporation 20 percent or more of whose outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote, by the debtor or a person that directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds, with power to vote, 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person that holds the securities:

(A) as a fiduciary or agent without sole discretionary power to vote the securities; or

(B) solely to secure a debt, if the person has not in fact exercised the power to vote;

(iii) a person whose business is operated by the debtor under a lease or other agreement, or a person substantially all of whose assets are controlled by the debtor; or

(iv) a person that operates the debtor’s business under a lease or other agreement or controls substantially all of the debtor’s assets.

Reporter's Comment: 1. The definition of “affiliate” is derived from Bankruptcy Code § 101(2) (1984).

 

JayNote: The term "affiliate" is only used in the Act in relation to the definition of "insider" under Section 1(8), but substantially expands the definition of "insider".

 

JayNote: Section 1(iii) includes "a person substantially all of whose assets are controlled by the debtor", or, in other words, a nominee of the debtor.

 

C O M M O N      P A G E      F O O T E R

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Many more articles by Jay Adkisson found here

 

UVTA - LOGICAL ORGANIZATION (Designed For Litigators)

Click here to go to the Voidable Transactions Decision Chart

Overview of UVTA -- The process and result

UVTA - NUMERICAL ORGANIZATION (Confusing & Difficult To Use)

 

The Uniform Law Commission's complete copy of the UVTA with comments in PDF format is available here. The webpage for the UVTA, showing states that have enacted and much other information regarding the Act is found here.

 

1 - Definitions

(1) Affiliate -- (2) Asset -- (3) Claim -- (4) Creditor -- (5) Debt -- (6) Debtor -- (7) Electronic -- (8) Insider -- (9) Lien -- (10) Organization -- (11) Person -- (12) Property -- (13) Record -- (14) Relative -- (15) Sign -- (16) Transfer -- (17) Valid Lien

2 - Insolvency

3 - Value

4 - Transfer Or Obligation Voidable As To Present Or Future Creditor

(a)(1) {Intent Test} -- (a)(2)(i) {Capitalization Test} -- (a)(2)(ii) {Equity-Sense Insolvency Test}

(b) {Badges of Fraud}

5 - Transfer or Obligation Voidable As To Present Creditor

(a) {Insolvency Test} -- (b) {Insider Preference Test}

6 - When Transfer Is Made Or Obligation Is Incurred

7 - Remedies Of Creditor

8 - Defenses, Liability, And Protection Of Transferee Or Obligee

{Main Provisions} -- (b) and (c) {Money Judgment}

9 - Extinguishment Of Claim For Relief

10 - Governing Law

11 - Application To Series Organization

12 - Supplementary Provisions

13 - Uniformity Of Application And Construction

14 - Relation To Electronic Signatures In Global And National Commerce

15 - Short Title

16 - Repeals; Conforming Amendment

 

FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS IN BANKRUPTCY

 

 

OTHER RESOURCES

OTHER INFORMATIONAL WEBSITES BY JAY ADKISSON

 

  • About Jay Adkisson - More about Jay D. Adkisson, background, books, articles, speaking appearances - https://jayadkisson.com/

 

  • Captive Insurance Companies - Licensed insurance companies formed by the parent organization to handle the insurance and risk management needs of the business, by the author of the best-selling book on the topic: Adkisson's Captive Insurance Companies - https://captiveinsurancecompanies.com/

 

 

  • Collecting On A Judgment - An explanation of common creditor remedies, strategies and tactics to enforce a judgment, including a discussion of common debtor asset protection strategies - https://collectingonajudgment.com/

 

  • Private Retirement Plans - An exploration of a unique creditor exemption allowed under California law which can be very beneficial but is often misused - https://privateretirementplans.com/

 

  • Charging Orders - The confusing remedy against a debtor's interest in an LLC or partnership is explained in reference to the Uniform Partnership Act, the Uniform Limited Partnership Act, and the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act - https://chargingorder.com/

 

  • Protected Series LLCs - An examination of the single most complex statutory legal structure yet created, with particular reference to the Uniform Protected Series Act of 2017 - https://protectedseriesact.com/

 

  • California Enforcement of Judgments Law - Considers the topic of judgment enforcement in California, including the California Enforcement of Judgments Law and other laws related to California creditor-debtor issues - https://calejl.com/

 

  • Anti-SLAPP Laws - A collection of and commentary about Anti-SLAPP laws and significant court decisions on the subject within the United States - https://antislapplaws.com/

 

© 2018 Jay D. Adkisson. All rights reserved. No claim to government works or the works of the Uniform Law Commission. The information contained in this website is for general educational purposes only, does not constitute any legal advice or opinion, and should not be relied upon in relation to particular cases. Use this information at your own peril; it is no substitute for the legal advice or opinion of an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction.  This site https://voidabletransactions.com Contact: jay [at] jayadkisson.com or by phone to 949-200-7773 or by fax to 877-698-0678.